technology to track the whereabouts of its users. Navigation device initially serves as a complement to the services provided smartphone. However, over time, the navigation device is despised by smartphone users as to threaten privacy.
Seth Schoen, senior technology staff at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, said navigation device in the smartphone can be harmful to the safety of individuals. Privacy is wide open to increase the desire of certain parties to stalking or abduction. But, in fact, many smartphone users who take advantage of the navigation system and do not feel bothered or threatened his life.
Navigation is used to play games, to move in social networking by demonstrating the presence of himself, or to help find an address while in the new place.
Here are 10 technologies with different systems, which have been implemented or are being developed on the smartphone.
Global Positioning System (GPS) was first built by the U.S. Department of Defense was first introduced in smartphones in the late 1990s. GPS is currently known as the best way to find a location outside the room. GPS uses a constellation of satellites that transmit the location and time data from space to your phone. If the phone can receive signals from three satellites, then the existence of the phone will appear on a flat map, as well as showing elevation.
Some countries have started trying to create a system similar to GPS systems. For example, the Russian GLONASS and China's compass in the trial. Galileo in Europe and Japan's Quasi Zenith also make use of satellites for navigation.
2. Assisted GPS
GPS works well if the phone is to find three or four satellites, but menutuhkan a long time. GPS sometimes does not work when the user's smartphone in the room or a place that reflects the satellite signal. Assisted GPS provides several tools that help speed up the GPS work.
When first found the satellite, the smartphone users have to download information on where they will be in the next 4 hours. This information is required by phone to stay connected to the satellite. If full service has been installed GPS in the phone, the startup time for the GPS will be cut, from 45 seconds to 15 seconds. Carrier can also send data using the Wi-Fi, which is faster than satellite.
3. Synthetic GPS
Synhethic GPS technology uses computational power to find a satellite location a few days to several weeks. This technology will facilitate GPS finds satellites when needed. Machabee of RX Roy said, with a synthetic GPS, the phone would only need 2 seconds to find the satellites when needed.
4. Cell ID
Mobile phone operators use this technology to find a cell phone without using GPS. Cell ID to locate the nearest cell phone towers to track a cell phone. Operators can use the database to identify the location and phone number, from each sector and Base Tranceiver Station (BTS).
Wi-Fi technology could be faster than aware of the existence of a cell phone Cell ID technology, because the coverage of Wi-Fi which is a small bay area. There are two ways to find a Wi-Fi phones, namely the RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) and the Wireless Fingerprinting.
RSSI trace the existence of the phone by utilizing the phone's signal strength, while the Wireless Fingerprinting track down his phone to record the frequency of their wireless phone. If a phone is often located on-site Wi-Fi, the Wi-Fi system will be easier to identify the mobile phone, compared to phones that have never gone to the location of the Wi-Fi.
6. Inertial Sensors
If the phone is in a location that does not have a wireless system, the sensor will still record the location of mobile phones by using inertial sensors. At least, a phone has 3 inertial sensors, ie, a compass (or magnetometer), Accelerometer and Gyroscope.
Compass (or magnetometer) is used to determine the direction, Accelerometer to report on how fast the phone moves to a direction, and rotating gyroscope to track movement. However, this sensor works only within a limited time.
Some smartphones already have a chip that can detect air pressure. To use it, the phone must pull down the local weather data or baseline figures on air teknaan and conditions in the building, such as heating or air conditioning. Indoor conditions such as heating or air conditioning can affect sensor accuracy. Barometer can be combined with other devices such as GPS and Wi-Fi. Barometer will be useful for when the satellite signal is blocked mengelevasi building.
Some shopping centers have applied ultrasonic technology in the door of the store to detect smartphone. Shoppers are detected by these tools will earn points redeemable for a particular prize. Previous smartphone users should install the application first so Shopkick detected by the ultrasonic.
9. Bluetooth Beacons
This tool can communicate with the Bluetooth 4.0 version that are on the phone. The concept is almost similar to a fingerprint, making the tool is capable of using signals and mobile phone networks to identify the presence of a smartphone. If smartphone users approaching a particular product in a store, then the promotion of the product will be sent to your phone.
10. Terrestrial Transmitters
An Australian startup company, Locata, is conducting a trial to overcome the limitations of GPS. The company makes a transmitter in a location that uses the same principle with GPS. Due to the strong signal from this transmitter, the radio can detect the presence of Locata smartphone faster than relying on the GPS satellites.
Source: Computer World